Core to EXiT is our statement publicly calling for probation and parole to be smaller, less punitive, and more equitable, restorative, and hopeful. Below is our statement and ever evolving list of signatories (in alphabetical order). Download the official version here.
Statement on the Future of Probation & Parole in the United States
Every day in the United States, 4.5 million people are under probation or parole supervision, more than twice as many people as are incarcerated. This figure is nearly a four-fold increase since 1980 and represents more people than live in half of all U.S. states. Originated in the 19th century as a rehabilitative front-end alternative to incarceration (probation) or back-end release valve for incarcerated individuals who were believed to be rehabilitated (parole), community supervision has now become overly burdensome, punitive and a driver of mass incarceration, especially for people of color.
Mass supervision has taken an enormous human and fiscal toll. Close to half (45 percent) of people entering prison in America were on probation or parole at the time of their current incarceration. Meanwhile, a quarter of those entering prison are incarcerated for technical violations, like staying out past curfew or missing appointments, disrupting their lives and costing taxpayers $2.8 billion annually. Community supervision and revocations disproportionately affect people of color. For example, while one in 55 adults in America are under probation and parole supervision, that proportion jumps significantly for black people, one in 23 of whom are under supervision.
Probation and parole have grown far too large because people are being supervised who should not be and are being kept on supervision for far too long. For those under community supervision, it is often too punitive and focused on suppression, surveillance, and control, rather than well-being and growth. Far from being an aid to community reintegration as originally designed, community supervision too often serves as a tripwire to imprisonment, creating a vicious cycle of reincarceration for people under supervision for administrative rule violations that would rarely lead someone not under supervision into prison.
Our Call for Transformation
As people who run or have run community supervision throughout the country and others concerned with mass supervision, we call for probation and parole to be substantially downsized, less punitive, and more hopeful, equitable and restorative.
What We Stand For
We stand for a community supervision system that has a smaller and more focused footprint and values dignity, fairness, race and gender equity, community, and reintegration. We affirm that justice-involved people have inherent value and worth. Our system should provide hope for the future, not a pathway to incarceration.
Probation and parole systems should be less punitive, more effective, and focused solely on the individuals who need support in lieu of confinement in order to keep our communities safe and healthy. Some people do not need supervision to build safe and healthy lives for themselves after an interaction with the justice system.
Probation and parole should promote development and success rather than trying to find failure. As numerous states around the country have already shown, we can significantly reduce the footprint of community supervision while increasing public safety and well-being. Probation and parole should practice procedural justice — treating people under supervision and their families with fairness and dignity. We must support the transformation of our field to focus on supporting people’s success on probation and parole.
Where We Want to Go
As leaders in probation and parole from across the country, we call for the following reforms:
Reduce the footprint and punitiveness of supervision
Divert from probation and parole, individuals for whom the purposes of sentencing can be achieved without supervision, prioritizing services and supports above surveillance and supervision.
Eradicate racial disparities in supervision, revocations, and sentencing recommendations.
Establish reasonable probation and parole terms that are not unnecessarily long (generally no longer than 18 months), and are measured by a balance of safety concerns and an individual’s goals.
Allow people on probation to earn time off supervision through good behavior and by achieving certain milestones, like high school graduation, program completion, enrollment in college, and job retention.
Tailor conditions of probation and parole to the needs and goals of each individual. Conditions should never be imposed unless they specifically relate to the person’s offense behavior.
Eliminate supervision fees. If fees are levied, they should always be within the person’s ability to pay and the person should have the option of performing reasonable community service as an alternative.
Eliminate incarceration for technical violations, and reduce reincarceration for low-level new offenses by those under supervision.
Improve community reintegration
Capture the savings from reducing the number of people under supervision and reducing incarceration for violations and reinvest them into smaller caseloads, evidence-based practices and enhanced community-led services and supports.
Expand and improve community services, supports, and opportunities provided to people on probation and parole.
Seek, hear, and honor the voices of community members, families, and justice-involved individuals as equal partners in system reform.
Support probation and parole staff as a cornerstone of systemic change. Staff should be heard, supported and appropriately trained to embrace the principles of procedural justice.
Address the statutory restrictions that inhibit reentry into the community, such as restoration of voting rights, access to college funding, driving privileges, and safe housing.
Interested in signing onto the Statement? Fill out the form here.
EXiT Steering Committee
Barbara Broderick, EXiT Co-Chair, and Chief Probation Officer, Maricopa County, Arizona
Vincent Schiraldi, EXiT Co-Chair, Co-Director, Columbia Justice Lab, Senior Research Scientist, Columbia School of Social Work; and former Commissioner, New York City Department of Probation
Adolfo Gonzales, Chief Probation Officer, San Diego County, California
Ana Bermúdez, Commissioner, New York City Department of Probation
Norris Henderson, Executive Director, Voice of the Experienced (VOTE)
Marcus Hodges, Associate Director, Washington DC Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency (CSOSA), and former President, National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE)
Michael Jacobson, Executive Director, CUNY Institute for State and Local Governance, and former Commissioner, New York City Corrections and Department of Probation
Brian Lovins, President-Elect, American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), Principal, Justice System Partners, and former Assistant Director, Harris County Community Supervision and Corrections Department
David Muhammad, Executive Director, National Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (NICJR), and former Chief Probation Officer, Alameda County, California
Terri McDonald, Chief Probation Officer, Los Angeles County, California
Michael Nail, Commissioner, Georgia Department of Community Supervision
Wendy Still, Chief Probation Officer, Alameda County, California
American Probation and Parole Association (APPA)
Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA)
Association of Women Executives in Corrections (AWEC)
Georgia Professional Association of Community Supervision (GPACS)
International Community Corrections Association (ICCA)
National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE)
Current and Former Probation and Parole Executives
Jerry B. Adger, Director, South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services
Jarvis Anderson, Director, Community Supervision and Corrections Department, Bexar County (San Antonio), Texas
Dan Blanchard, Division Director of Adult Probation and Parole, Utah Department of Corrections
Patrick N. Bohn, Director, North Dakota Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation - Parole & Probation
Tyler Bouma, Executive Director, Marion County (IN) Community Corrections
Linda Brady, Probation Officers Professional Association of Indiana (POPAI) Past-president
Corinne Briscoe, Director, Macoupin/Greene/Scott Probation District, Illinois
Susan Burke, Executive Director, The Carey Group, Past President, American Probation and Parole Association, and former Director (Ret.), Utah Division of Juvenile Justice Services
William D. Burrell, Corrections Management Consultant, and former Chief of Adult Probation Services, New Jersey State Court System
William H. Carbone, Senior Lecturer and Executive Director, Criminal Justice Programs and the Tow Youth Justice Institute, University of New Haven, and former Executive Director, State of Connecticut Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division
Jason Cash, Chief Probation Officer, Navajo County, Arizona
Ron Corbett, Faculty, UMass Lowell, and former Acting Commissioner, Massachusetts Probation Service
Dale Crook, Director of Field Services, Vermont Department of Corrections
Veronica Ballard Cunningham, Executive Director, American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), former Parole Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, and former Chief Probation Officer, Cook County (IL) Adult Probation Department
Edward J. Dolan, Commissioner, Massachusetts Probation Service
Vincent Doto, Director, Columbia County (NY) Probation Department
Sarah Douthit, Chief Probation Officer, Coconino County (AZ) Adult Probation
Kevin Duckworth, Director of Probation and Parole, Oklahoma
Jim Elder, Bureau Chief Community Corrections, Delaware Department of Correction
Karen Fletcher, Chief Adult Probation Officer, City and County of San Francisco, California
Molly Gauntner, President, Ohio Chief Probation Officers Association
Andria Geigle, Chief Probation Officer, Montgomery County, Indiana
Fernando Giraldo, Chief Probation Officer, Santa Cruz County, California
Melanie Golumbeck, Chief Probation Officer, Porter County Court, Indiana
Kele Griffone, Division Director, Salt Lake County Criminal Justice Services
James Grizzel, Chief Probation Officer, Crawford County, Indiana
Billie Grobe, Associate, Justice System Partners, and former Chief Probation Officer, Yavapai County, Arizona
Erica L. Hargis, Director, Division of Probation and Parole, Kentucky Department of Corrections
Gary Hinzman, Past President, American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), and former Director of the Sixth District Department of Correctional Services, Iowa
Martin F. Horn, Distinguished Lecturer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, former Commissioner, New York City Department of Probation, and former Executive Director, New York State Division of Parole
James Hudspeth, Deputy Executive Director, Utah Department of Corrections, and former Director of Adult Probation and Parole, Utah Department of Corrections
K.S. Humiston, Ph.D., Chief Probation Officer, Mono County, California
Mack Jenkins, Criminal Justice Consultant, and former Chief Probation Officer, San Diego County, California
David Johnson, Director of the Division of Adult Parole with the Colorado Department of Corrections
Kevin Kempf, Executive Director, Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA)
Julie Kempker, Director, Missouri Division of Probation and Parole
David M. Koch, Chief Probation Officer, Sonoma County, California
Sally Kreamer, Deputy Director, Iowa Department of Corrections
Kathryn J. Liebers, Chief Probation Officer District 7, Nebraska State Probation; and Current Vice President, National Association of Probation Executives
Steven Lessard, Chief Probation Officer, Gila County, Arizona
Sarah Lochner, Director of Court Services, Wabash County, Indiana
Joseph M. Mancini, Director of Operations, SEAT Center, Associate Commissioner, Office of Community Partnerships, New York State Office of Children and Family Services, and former Director of Probation, Schenectady County, NY
Teresa May, Ph.D., Director, Harris County (TX) Community Supervision and Corrections Department
Scott MacDonald, Justice Consultant, Justsolve Inc., and former Chief Probation Officer, Santa Cruz County, California
Rod McKone, Chief Adult Probation Officer, Pinal County, Arizona
Magdalena Morales-Aina, LPC-S, Director, El Paso County Community Supervision and Corrections Department, El Paso, Texas
John Morris, Chief Adult Probation Officer, Yavapai County, Arizona
Francine Perretta, Executive Director, Association of Women Executives in Correction (AWEC), former Deputy Probation Commissioner, Westchester County, New York, and former Director of Probation, St. Lawrence County, New York
Veronica Perry, Chief Probation Officer, Medina County, Ohio
Rocco A. Pozzi, Commissioner of Probation, Westchester County, New York
Erika Lyn Preuitt, Director, Multnomah County (OR) Department of Community Justice
Susan Rice, Chief Probation Officer, Miami County, Indiana
Gary A. Roberge, Executive Director, Connecticut Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division
Charles R. Robinson, Deputy Chief, Administrative Office of U.S. Courts Probation and Pretrial Services Office, Washington, D.C., and former Director, Travis County Community Supervision & Corrections Department, Austin, Texas
John H. Schow, Director, DuPage County (IL) Probation and Court Services
Tom Stotts, Chief Probation Officer, Marion Municipal Court, Marion, Ohio
Jeremiah Stromberg, Assistant Director, Oregon Department of Corrections
Scott Taylor, Consultant, Just Us, and former Director, Multnomah County (OR) Department of Community Justice
Ray Wahl, Justus consultant, and former Deputy State Court Administrator, Utah State Courts
Kathy Waters, Director, Adult Probation Services, Arizona Supreme Court
Harper Wigglebutt, Sheriff of Inwood Forest